Keywords

Welcome. Please enter your keywords on this page. Please provide a byline for your entry. For reference, the Keywords section of the Essay Sequence assignment.

Class members may respond to keyword entries by adding content, including other media, and providing edits.


networking

  • The word ‘networking’ originated between 1935 and 1940, as a conjugated derivative of ‘to network.’ Networking is defined as “a supportive system of sharing information and services among individuals and groups having a common interest.” (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/networking?o=100074)
  • Fred Turner describes the early history of networking, which was—appropriately—an integral part of the development of both ‘computer networking’ and ‘social networking’ as we know them today. Turner demonstrates the power of networking in the development of technology through the example of Norbert Weiner’s development of cybernetics. Weiner “pulled its analytical terms together by bridging multiple, if formerly segregated, scientific communities… because he was in steady collaborative contact with representatives from each of these domains…” (Turner, 24-25)
  • Today, we often use the term ‘social networking,’ made popular by sites such as Friendster, MySpace, and Facebook, which provide means for users to interact over the internet.
  • We also think of networking in the sense of a group of linked computers. A computer network is a group of computers that are connected to each other for the purpose of communicating. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network)

-Katie Collins

cybernetics

  • The study of human control functions and of mechanical and electronic systems designed to replace them, involving the application of statistical mechanics to communication engineering (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cybernetics)
  • Founded by mathematician Norbert Wiener, who saw such systems as theoretically "self-regulating and complete in and of themselves" (Turner 24)
  • "The rhetoric of cybernetics was the product of interdisciplinary entrepreneurial work" (Turner 25). Included fields of study: physiology, engineering, and human behavior. It is also entrepreneurial in that it "offered a contact language through which work on weapons devices could be organized" (Turner 25)
  • Think of computer technology as a way of extending human capabilities (http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii_wiener.htm)

-Aimee Gervacio

entrepreneur

-Aimee Gervacio

algorithm

  • a set of rules for solving a problem in a finite number of steps, as for finding the greatest common divisor

(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/algorithm)

  • Origin: 1890–95; var. of algorism, by assoc. with Gk arithmós number. See arithmetic
  • Example: Kevin Kelly, the executive editor of Wired magazine states in a 1998 book that "thinking is a type of computation, DNA is software, and evolution is an algorithmic process". Algorithms are typically used in computer science, but this application of the concept to human thought is becoming more prevalent. (Turner 15)

-Elliott Ditman

--

New Economy-

  • Coined in the late 1990s, it referred to the impact of information technology on the economy. It stated that traditional measures of value were no longer valid because technology was changing the world so quickly and dramatically. - PC Magazine (http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=New+Economy&i=47933,00.asp)
  • This term was used in the late 1990's to suggest that globalization and/or innovations in information technology had changed the way that the world economy works. Conjectures included changes in productivity, the inflation-unemployment tradeoff, the business cycle, and the valuation of enterprises.- Professor Deardorff, Economics and Public Policy, University of Michigan (http://www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/n.html)
  • One in which digital technologies and networked forms of economic organization combined to liberate the entrepreneur.- Turner (pg 175)
  • “In the new economy, human invention increasingly makes physical resources obsolete. We’re breaking through the material conditions of existence to a world where man creates his own destiny” – President Ronald Regan at Moscow State University (pg 175)

- Elizabeth Hardwick

Techno-social-

  • Network where technology and social pursuits combine.
  • Media Lab began creating a “socio-technical world” when they began developing new technologies in “demo” format. They connected people in the academic and technological fields, with business culture who bought the “demos” . – Turner (180)
  • Nicholas Negroponte talked about how making technology personal will lessen the gap between our work and our leisure life, thus melding the tech-social spheres.- Turner (180)
  • “both the Media Lab and Nicholas Negroponte would become leading emblems of the techno-social future”- Turner (pg 181)
  • In the Global Business Network, when their network evolved from the technical information relationships to including more informal social networks. For example when different companies were brought together for business conference about technology, and ended up continuing connections socially with activities like book clubs.- Turner (pg 190-191)

- Elizabeth Hardwick

Wired

  • A magazine founded in 1993 by Louis Rossetto and Jane Metcalfe. Its primary focus is not simply technology, Rossetto says, but rather "about the most powerful people on the planet today - The Digital Generation."
  • Before the rise of the Internet, a phrase perhaps most commonly defined as "feverishly excited"; Re-defined in the 1990s as "connected to a telecommunications network and especially to the Internet."

(http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wired)

  • Now, "wired" can be used to describe a person who is connected to the Internet; instead of saying that a computer is "wired" to the Internet, we often say that a person is "wired" to the Internet, perhaps further blurring the lines between human experience and technology. This use of the word may be most ubiquitous with '90s slang, but is still heard today.

- McKinley Gillespie

The Digital Generation

  • As defined by Louis Rossetto, founder of Wired magazine: "The most powerful people on the planet today…. the people who not only foresaw how the merger of computers, telecommunications and the media is transforming life at the cusp of the new millennium, they are making it happen." (Turner)
  • The group of people who, in the early-to-mid-'90s, propelled Internet technologies forward and helped to expand its use across the world.
  • Also, those most personally impacted by the resulting speculative market bubble.

- McKinley Gillespie

Power Law
*Describes a system of interacting elements not a collection of variable elements.
*Challenges the tendency to look at an average of a small group and attempt to make accurate assumptions about the group as a whole. Emphasizes the need to look at the behavior of the collective (See figure 5-2 on page 129).
*Linked to Wikipedia because a small number of participants contribute most of the material while the rest of the people in the wikipedia system do not contribute that much. Only looking at the small number of contributors would give a false impression about the group of wikipedia users as a whole.
*In power law distribution most writers have few readers.
-Megan Mercer

User-generated content

- Describes how users can create and share some form of media with one another in an informal manner. There is no professional opinion involved.
- It is not simply work that ordinary people do on a “word processor” or “drawing program.” It is work that uses “re creative tools” like Wikipedia or blogs where people can share their work with others.
- Typically, user-generated content “isn’t content … in the sense of being created for general consumption.” It is directed more towards a small audience, like a group of friends. It offers ordinary people the chance to share their thoughts and feelings with those fairly close to them; not usually directed at the general public. They are a lot like diaries.
- The exception being some web blogs, especially political ones such as the Huffington Post, where there is a large audience and the information is directed towards the general public.
- Facebook status’ and wall-to-wall posts with friends are good examples. The content that is posted is “in public but not for the public.” The information may be read by all of your facebook friends, or it could be read by only a few. The content that someone shares is not meant to be understood by the entire Internet presence, but in sharing it online, virtually anyone can read it.

- Anne-Randolph Scott

Fame

- Clay Shirky defines fame as an "imbalance between inbound and outbound attention, more arrows pointing in than out."
- Despite the fact that the internet gives us the opportunity to speak and be spoken to by everyone on the planet, the very limits of our cognition makes this impossible.
- Oprah has millions of fans who would all love to write e-mails to her and have her respond to them, but her being human makes this impossible.
- Put in these terms, fame is not just a goal, it is also a bit of a disability.

Publish, Then Filter

- Shirky uses this term to explain the shift in publishing content that the internet has caused.
- Before, a person had to submit their work to a publisher who then decided whether or not it was worth presenting to the public. This, as Shirky puts it, follows the filter, then publish formula.
- Today, any person with an internet connection can publish anything with ease and without spending a dime. This causes a bit of a problem because before, we could usually trust that the work was worth our time because it was evaluated by a trained professional first.
- Now, each individual has to apply their own filter to the published content on the web in order to decide whether or not the content is actually worth the time it takes to comprehend it.

-Jared Putman


Googol
- The term originally chosen to be the name of Brin and Page's search engine now known as Google (a common spelling of the term) because it fit well with their goal to build a "very large-scale search engine."
- It is 10100, used to illustrate the difference between an unimaginably large number and infinity.
- An interesting fact is that a googol is greater than the number of protons in the universe.

Unix Philosophy
- The Unix Philosophy is a set of cultural norms and philosophical approaches to developing software.
- Various people have come up with different ideas about this philosophy and as a result it is controversial.
- There are 9 precepts that sum up Unix Philosophy written by Mike Kancarz:
1. Small is beautiful.
2. Make each program do one thing well.
3. Build a prototype as soon as possible.
4. Choose portability over efficiency.
5. Store data in flat text files.
6. Use software leverage to your advantage.
7. Use shell scripts to increase leverage and portability.
8. Avoid captive user interfaces.
9. Make every program a filter.
- A Unix philosopher, Eric Raymond has summarized it using the KISS principle, "Keep It Simple, Stupid."
- Lawrence Lessig, quoted by Auletta, summarizes it in this way, "Give me a little pile of code and you can plug it into anything you want."
- It was the philosophy present at Stanford in the 1990s when Brin and Page attended and would have had impacted their work.

- Brittney Trimmer


Monopoly
(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/monopoly)

• The exclusive possession or control of something.
• A company or group that has such control.
• Origin: Greek (monopṓlion) - right of exclusive sale.
• Also consider the term: Premonopoly

Googled
(http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Googled)
• To do an internet search on someone/ something.
• When you look something up on the search engine known as google. For example a website, person or a thing. Usually pertaining to a spur of the moment thing while in an online conversation.
• The act of searching any part of the Google Network.
• When a web site pimps itself out cheap to Google ads for cash rather than sell advertising the old fashioned way.

See Also: Googler
(http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Googler)
o An employee working at Google. Employee benefits include free massages, gourmet food, no set working hours, constant talks from presidential candidates and tons of other famous people, and really high salary.
o A person who uses Google.com often.
o a person who no longer reads newspapers, magazines, or visits the reference section of the library but looks up all needed info on Google instead.

Profit
www.dictionary.com

1.
Often, profits.
a.
pecuniary gain resulting from the employment of capital in any transaction. Compare gross profit, net profit.
b.
the ratio of such pecuniary gain to the amount of capital invested.
c.
returns, proceeds, or revenue, as from property or investments.
2.
the monetary surplus left to a producer or employer after deducting wages, rent, cost of raw materials, etc.: The company works on a small margin of profit.
3.
advantage; benefit; gain.

Brandon Shipp
Meaghan Watson

Digital Memory

1. the recording of a user's activity on digital devices (media) and the internet.

  • Ex: "Google is able to connect search queries to a particular individual across time—and with impressive precision…Google knows for each one of us what we searched for and when, and what search results we found promising enough that we clicked on them" (p. 7).

2. memory that is comprehensively built through major and minor details; it is stored by digital technologies, such as Google, Yahoo!, and Microsoft search engines; credit bureaus; travel reservation systems; telecom operators; and law enforcement agencies.

—Katelyn Webster

Movable Type Printing Press

1. Developed by Johannes Gutenberg around 1440, this mechanical device transferred text onto pages for rapid book production. The invention and widespread use is regarded as the most influential event in the second millennium AD.

Shared Memory

1. In computing, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.
2. Applies to development of modern book production. Having more books equals having more people learning from the same “template.”

—- Michael Yi

Implicit Memory

A type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming, a process whereby subjects show improved performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. Implicit memory also leads to the illusion-of-truth effect, which suggests that subjects are more likely to rate as true statements those that they have already heard, regardless of their veracity. In daily life, people rely on implicit memory every day in the form of procedural memory, the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities. Research into implicit memory indicates that implicit memory works through a different mental process from explicit memory.

  • Procedural Memory Our memory for how to do things. When needed, procedural memories are automatically retrieved and utilized for the execution of the step-by-step procedures involved in both cognitive and motor skills; from tying your shoes to flying an airplane. This process occurs without the need for conscious control or attention. Procedural memory is a type of long-term memory and more specifically a type of implicit memory.

Declarative Memory

Sometimes referred to as explicit memory, it is one of two types of long term human memory. It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events. Its counterpart is known as non-declarative or procedural memory, which refers to unconscious memories such as skills (e.g. learning to ride a bicycle). Declarative memory can be divided into two distinct categories: semantic and episodic memory.

  • Episodic Memory Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. Semantic and episodic memory together make up the category of declarative memory, which is one of the two major divisions in memory. The counterpart to declarative, or explicit memory, is procedural memory, or implicit memory.

— Jordan Davis

Management

-Management in all business areas and human organization activity is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources.

Because organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others
(Wikipedia)

-"Schmidt defends management chaos, or at least a degree of it, as a style that fits the founders" (218)

—Lorelle Stephanski

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License